For a cluster of any size sitting in the aether, the zero point neutrinos passing through it will become either positively or negatively imprinted, depending on the charge they collide with. There will therefore be a resultant charge imprinted cloud both internal and external to the cluster.
Proton assembly, size and stability
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
For a small cluster of just a few positrons and electrons, the internal and external neutrino cloud will be fairly localised around the individual elements (which is why they attract). As the cluster grows in size, the interactions of these cloud fields with their neighbours will result in a higher population of positive and negative i-neutrinos colliding within the bond gaps and hence an expansion of the local aether with an associated decrease in attraction. The bond strength between the electrons and positrons in the cluster therefore weakens as the cluster grows.
Creation of Matter
Photon Condensation
There is therefore a point at which the addition of one further electron-positron pair will be one too many. At this point, the additional ‘incoming’ positron is retained but the additional electron is ejected from the cluster and, with insufficient energy to escape the resulting attractive field between it and the now net positive cluster, is sent into orbit around it. Stability is restored.
When subsequent gamma rays are triggered to produce further electron-positron pairs, they are ‘rejected’ because a new bond is not sustainable. The pairs merely move off together, becoming a ‘mini-cluster’ which will in turn start to grow. The original cluster therefore now neither grows nor diminishes in size.
Why the cluster sends an electron rather than a positron into orbit and hence atoms have orbiting electrons instead of orbiting positrons is a matter of future theory and future research. Undoubtedly, it will be related to the internal structure of the charged quanta and so is supportive of Fredrik Nygaard’s suggestion, in his books, that positively charged particles are slightly more reactive than negatively charged particles. However, all that matters here is that it is electrons that are ejected and not positrons.
Positron-electron annihilation
Proton Internal Bonds
The proposition that protons are built from clusters of positrons and electrons, when we know that positrons and electrons ‘annihilate’ when they meet, needs some explanation.
When protons are created in extreme high energy fields such as the cosmic z-pinch, there is inevitably a high flux of i-neutrinos in the field between the electrons and positrons which are combining into clusters. This flux, although not having a net contribution to the attraction between the particles is nonetheless present in the field between them and therefore preventing the local aether field from shrinking to zero. This means that the positrons and electrons, although close enough to be ‘bonded’ are always somewhat separated from each other.
Expanding protons
Actually, the part that requires explanation is not that positrons and electrons can coexist within a proton, since we know already that positive and negative particles will be attracted until they touch (as in the positron bond, the electron bond and the proton-neutron bond), and they will then remain in contact without further interaction. The part that requires explanation is why free positrons and free electrons annihilate rather than coexist in contact with each other.
Coexistence is exactly what would happen if they were brought together with no additional energy involved. However, outside the extremely high electric fields in which they are created from gamma ray photons, that is never the case. A free positron and a nearby free electron will have a positive-negative i-neutrino field between them which results in an immediate shrinking of the aether with the result that the two will be brought together with very high speed, which equates to very high energy. Just as a gamma ray in a high energy field will transform into an electron-positron pair, it seems that the reverse also happens. If the electron-positron pair have sufficiently high energy, they will transform into a gamma ray.
Over time, as the z-pinch dissipates and the field reduces in energy, the average charge and density of the i-neutrino flux also reduces and so the gap between the ‘bonded’ electrons and positrons gradually reduces. This not only explains why the pairs do not annihilate (they approach each other gradually), but also suggests that the bonds increase in strength as the field decreases. That, in turn, suggests that protons in relatively low energy fields, such as in our present day galaxy, will have tighter bonds and be more stable than when they were first assembled in the high energy z-pinch areas of the cosmos. Although that is true, something else happens as well - the protons get bigger.
Here’s how it works:
We see this happening in studies of lightning, a high energy field event, which produces bursts of gamma rays. These gamma rays transform into electron-positron pairs within the high energy field and then, after the electric field has dissipated, recombine energetically and transform back to gamma rays. This recombination explains the gamma ray afterglow, an effect that has been observed to last for as long as a minute after a lightning flash.
The result is that the unstable and net neutral cluster has become a stable and net positive proton with a surrounding net positive neutrino cloud and, with the orbiting electron in place, the net (neutral) charge of the whole is maintained. Without this there would be no atoms and hence no matter in the universe.
Proton assembly
We can see from the above that, as the z-pinch electric field conditions which create protons begin to dissipate, an increasingly larger proton becomes sustainable. In other words, if the proton could somehow grow in the reducing field, it would remain stable. The process of photon condensation provides the mechanism for exactly that to happen. Wherever the conditions are right to allow photon condensation, protons will grow until the size limit for the prevailing electric field conditions is reached. Which means that ‘old’ protons are larger than ‘new’ ones.
As previously said, ‘new’ protons that are subsequently in a lower energy field than the one in which they were created (ie have either moved away from the z-pinch field or the z-pinch field itself has dissipated) will have ‘tighter’ internal bonds since their positrons and electrons are nearly touching. There will be only a very small gap between them and so the cluster will be more compact. That means that, as long as there are still gamma rays around and the local field remains strong enough to produce sufficiently highly charge imprinted neutrinos, the process of photon condensation will be able to add more electron-positron pairs to the proton cluster. That will continue until, once again, the size limit for bond sustainability is reached. The proton then stops growing and stability is maintained.
We should note that ‘stability’ at this point means ‘only just stable’. New atoms have protons that are right up to or at the point of bond unsustainability.
As the z-pinch field dissipates, or matter moves away from it, gamma rays are no longer triggered and the process of photon condensation ceases completely. In this reducing field strength environment, the background field of i-neutrinos will now be less dense and the neutrinos within the field will be less highly imprinted. The i-neutrinos populating the gaps between the positrons and electrons within each proton are therefore smaller which means the gaps will contract and the bonds will become stronger. The lower the external field becomes, the stronger the protons’ bonds will become. The consequence of this is that, here in our part of the galaxy, all our protons will be large and stable whereas in the z-pinch areas of the universe, protons will be smaller and relatively less stable.
All this is in complete accord with Halton Arp’s suggestion that the mass of atoms increases over time. This mass increase only actually happens over the limited period of time whilst field strength conditions and gamma ray flux remain sufficient to sustain photon condensation. However, this could be a period of many millions of years and, whatever the period, it explains why quasars are made up of matter that is less massive than the matter found in our solar system and that the red-shifts seen in quasars are not indicative of distance, but of age.
Proton expansion through photon condensation is also a one way process, since the opposite effect, whereby positrons and electrons within a proton would somehow become energetic enough to annihilate into a photon, can never happen. See also Ejection of Matter.
Protons in our Galaxy
Proton size limit
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
+ - - - + - - + - - + - - - + - - + - - - - - -
Gap containing positive and negative i- neutrinos producing attraction
Neighbouring charge adds i-neutrinos into the gap which expands the aether and so reduces attraction
Positron (Showing neutrino field from one positive quanta only)
Electron (Showing neutrino field from one negative quanta only)
Proton size
For a cluster of any size sitting in the aether, the zero point neutrinos passing through it will become either positively or negatively imprinted, depending on the charge they collide with. There will therefore be a resultant charge imprinted cloud both internal and external to the cluster.
Proton assembly, size and stability
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
-
For a small cluster of just a few positrons and electrons, the internal and external neutrino cloud will be fairly localised around the individual elements (which is why they attract). As the cluster grows in size, the interactions of these cloud fields with their neighbours will result in a higher population of positive and negative i- neutrinos colliding within the bond gaps and hence an expansion of the local aether with an associated decrease in attraction. The bond strength between the electrons and positrons in the cluster therefore weakens as the cluster grows.
Creation of Matter
Photon Condensation
There is therefore a point at which the addition of one further electron-positron pair will be one too many. At this point, the additional ‘incoming’ positron is retained but the additional electron is ejected from the cluster and, with insufficient energy to escape the resulting attractive field between it and the now net positive cluster, is sent into orbit around it. Stability is restored.
When subsequent gamma rays are triggered to produce further electron-positron pairs, they are ‘rejected’ because a new bond is not sustainable. The pairs merely move off together, becoming a ‘mini-cluster’ which will in turn start to grow. The original cluster therefore now neither grows nor diminishes in size.
Why the cluster sends an electron rather than a positron into orbit and hence atoms have orbiting electrons instead of orbiting positrons is a matter of future theory and future research. Undoubtedly, it will be related to the internal structure of the charged quanta and so is supportive of Fredrik Nygaard’s suggestion, in his books, that positively charged particles are slightly more reactive than negatively charged particles. However, all that matters here is that it is electrons that are ejected and not positrons.
Positron-electron annihilation
Proton Internal Bonds
The proposition that protons are built from clusters of positrons and electrons, when we know that positrons and electrons ‘annihilate’ when they meet, needs some explanation.
When protons are created in extreme high energy fields such as the cosmic z-pinch, there is inevitably a high flux of i-neutrinos in the field between the electrons and positrons which are combining into clusters. This flux, although not having a net contribution to the attraction between the particles is nonetheless present in the field between them and therefore preventing the local aether field from shrinking to zero. This means that the positrons and electrons, although close enough to be ‘bonded’ are always somewhat separated from each other.
Expanding protons
Actually, the part that requires explanation is not that positrons and electrons can coexist within a proton, since we know already that positive and negative particles will be attracted until they touch (as in the positron bond, the electron bond and the proton-neutron bond), and they will then remain in contact without further interaction. The part that requires explanation is why free positrons and free electrons annihilate rather than coexist in contact with each other.
Coexistence is exactly what would happen if they were brought together with no additional energy involved. However, outside the extremely high electric fields in which they are created from gamma ray photons, that is never the case. A free positron and a nearby free electron will have a positive-negative i-neutrino field between them which results in an immediate shrinking of the aether with the result that the two will be brought together with very high speed, which equates to very high energy. Just as a gamma ray in a high energy field will transform into an electron-positron pair, it seems that the reverse also happens. If the electron-positron pair have sufficiently high energy, they will transform into a gamma ray.
Over time, as the z-pinch dissipates and the field reduces in energy, the average charge and density of the i-neutrino flux also reduces and so the gap between the ‘bonded’ electrons and positrons gradually reduces. This not only explains why the pairs do not annihilate (they approach each other gradually), but also suggests that the bonds increase in strength as the field decreases. That, in turn, suggests that protons in relatively low energy fields, such as in our present day galaxy, will have tighter bonds and be more stable than when they were first assembled in the high energy z-pinch areas of the cosmos. Although that is true, something else happens as well - the protons get bigger.
We see this happening in studies of lightning, a high energy field event, which produces bursts of gamma rays. These gamma rays transform into electron-positron pairs within the high energy field and then, after the electric field has dissipated, recombine energetically and transform back to gamma rays. This recombination explains the gamma ray afterglow, an effect that has been observed to last for as long as a minute after a lightning flash.
Here’s how it works:
The result is that the unstable and net neutral cluster has become a stable and net positive proton with a surrounding net positive neutrino cloud and, with the orbiting electron in place, the net (neutral) charge of the whole is maintained. Without this there would be no atoms and hence no matter in the universe.
Proton assembly
We can see from the above that, as the z-pinch electric field conditions which create protons begin to dissipate, an increasingly larger proton becomes sustainable. In other words, if the proton could somehow grow in the reducing field, it would remain stable. The process of photon condensation provides the mechanism for exactly that to happen. Wherever the conditions are right to allow photon condensation, protons will grow until the size limit for the prevailing electric field conditions is reached. Which means that ‘old’ protons are larger than ‘new’ ones.
As previously said, ‘new’ protons that are subsequently in a lower energy field than the one in which they were created (ie have either moved away from the z-pinch field or the z-pinch field itself has dissipated) will have ‘tighter’ internal bonds since their positrons and electrons are nearly touching. There will be only a very small gap between them and so the cluster will be more compact. That means that, as long as there are still gamma rays around and the local field remains strong enough to produce sufficiently highly charge imprinted neutrinos, the process of photon condensation will be able to add more electron-positron pairs to the proton cluster. That will continue until, once again, the size limit for bond sustainability is reached. The proton then stops growing and stability is maintained.
We should note that ‘stability’ at this point means ‘only just stable’. New atoms have protons that are right up to or at the point of bond unsustainability.
As the z-pinch field dissipates, or matter moves away from it, gamma rays are no longer triggered and the process of photon condensation ceases completely. In this reducing field strength environment, the background field of i-neutrinos will now be less dense and the neutrinos within the field will be less highly imprinted. The i- neutrinos populating the gaps between the positrons and electrons within each proton are therefore smaller which means the gaps will contract and the bonds will become stronger. The lower the external field becomes, the stronger the protons’ bonds will become. The consequence of this is that, here in our part of the galaxy, all our protons will be large and stable whereas in the z-pinch areas of the universe, protons will be smaller and relatively less stable.
All this is in complete accord with Halton Arp’s suggestion that the mass of atoms increases over time. This mass increase only actually happens over the limited period of time whilst field strength conditions and gamma ray flux remain sufficient to sustain photon condensation. However, this could be a period of many millions of years and, whatever the period, it explains why quasars are made up of matter that is less massive than the matter found in our solar system and that the red-shifts seen in quasars are not indicative of distance, but of age.
Proton expansion through photon condensation is also a one way process, since the opposite effect, whereby positrons and electrons within a proton would somehow become energetic enough to annihilate into a photon, can never happen. See also Ejection of Matter.
Protons in our Galaxy
Proton size limit
Gap with positively and negatively charged neutrinos producing attraction
Electron (Showing neutrino field from one negative quanta only)
Positron (Showing neutrino field from one positive quanta only)
Neighbouring charge adds charged neutrinos into gap which expands aether and so reduces attraction
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
For a cluster of any size sitting in the aether, the zero point neutrinos passing through it will become either positively or negatively imprinted, depending on the charge they collide with. There will therefore be a resultant charge imprinted cloud both internal and external to the cluster.
Proton assembly, size and stability
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
For a small cluster of just a few positrons and electrons, the internal and external neutrino cloud will be fairly localised around the individual elements (which is why they attract). As the cluster grows in size, the interactions of these cloud fields with their neighbours will result in a higher population of positive and negative i-neutrinos colliding within the bond gaps and hence an expansion of the local aether with an associated decrease in attraction. The bond strength between the electrons and positrons in the cluster therefore weakens as the cluster grows.
Creation of Matter
Photon Condensation
There is therefore a point at which the addition of one further electron-positron pair will be one too many. At this point, the additional ‘incoming’ positron is retained but the additional electron is ejected from the cluster and, with insufficient energy to escape the resulting attractive field between it and the now net positive cluster, is sent into orbit around it. Stability is restored.
When subsequent gamma rays are triggered to produce further electron-positron pairs, they are ‘rejected’ because a new bond is not sustainable. The pairs merely move off together, becoming a ‘mini-cluster’ which will in turn start to grow. The original cluster therefore now neither grows nor diminishes in size.
Why the cluster sends an electron rather than a positron into orbit and hence atoms have orbiting electrons instead of orbiting positrons is a matter of future theory and future research. Undoubtedly, it will be related to the internal structure of the charged quanta and so is supportive of Fredrik Nygaard’s suggestion, in his books, that positively charged particles are slightly more reactive than negatively charged particles. However, all that matters here is that it is electrons that are ejected and not positrons.
Positron-electron annihilation
Proton Internal Bonds
The proposition that protons are built from clusters of positrons and electrons, when we know that positrons and electrons ‘annihilate’ when they meet, needs some explanation.
When protons are created in extreme high energy fields such as the cosmic z-pinch, there is inevitably a high flux of i-neutrinos in the field between the electrons and positrons which are combining into clusters. This flux, although not having a net contribution to the attraction between the particles is nonetheless present in the field between them and therefore preventing the local aether field from shrinking to zero. This means that the positrons and electrons, although close enough to be ‘bonded’ are always somewhat separated from each other.
Expanding protons
Actually, the part that requires explanation is not that positrons and electrons can coexist within a proton, since we know already that positive and negative particles will be attracted until they touch (as in the positron bond, the electron bond and the proton-neutron bond), and they will then remain in contact without further interaction. The part that requires explanation is why free positrons and free electrons annihilate rather than coexist in contact with each other.
Coexistence is exactly what would happen if they were brought together with no additional energy involved. However, outside the extremely high electric fields in which they are created from gamma ray photons, that is never the case. A free positron and a nearby free electron will have a positive-negative i-neutrino field between them which results in an immediate shrinking of the aether with the result that the two will be brought together with very high speed, which equates to very high energy. Just as a gamma ray in a high energy field will transform into an electron-positron pair, it seems that the reverse also happens. If the electron-positron pair have sufficiently high energy, they will transform into a gamma ray.
Over time, as the z-pinch dissipates and the field reduces in energy, the average charge and density of the i-neutrino flux also reduces and so the gap between the ‘bonded’ electrons and positrons gradually reduces. This not only explains why the pairs do not annihilate (they approach each other gradually), but also suggests that the bonds increase in strength as the field decreases. That, in turn, suggests that protons in relatively low energy fields, such as in our present day galaxy, will have tighter bonds and be more stable than when they were first assembled in the high energy z-pinch areas of the cosmos. Although that is true, something else happens as well - the protons get bigger.
We see this happening in studies of lightning, a high energy field event, which produces bursts of gamma rays. These gamma rays transform into electron-positron pairs within the high energy field and then, after the electric field has dissipated, recombine energetically and transform back to gamma rays. This recombination explains the gamma ray afterglow, an effect that has been observed to last for as long as a minute after a lightning flash.
Here’s how it works:
The result is that the unstable and net neutral cluster has become a stable and net positive proton with a surrounding net positive neutrino cloud and, with the orbiting electron in place, the net (neutral) charge of the whole is maintained. Without this there would be no atoms and hence no matter in the universe.
Proton assembly
We can see from the above that, as the z-pinch electric field conditions which create protons begin to dissipate, an increasingly larger proton becomes sustainable. In other words, if the proton could somehow grow in the reducing field, it would remain stable. The process of photon condensation provides the mechanism for exactly that to happen. Wherever the conditions are right to allow photon condensation, protons will grow until the size limit for the prevailing electric field conditions is reached. Which means that ‘old’ protons are larger than ‘new’ ones.
As previously said, ‘new’ protons that are subsequently in a lower energy field than the one in which they were created (ie have either moved away from the z-pinch field or the z-pinch field itself has dissipated) will have ‘tighter’ internal bonds since their positrons and electrons are nearly touching. There will be only a very small gap between them and so the cluster will be more compact. That means that, as long as there are still gamma rays around and the local field remains strong enough to produce sufficiently highly charge imprinted neutrinos, the process of photon condensation will be able to add more electron-positron pairs to the proton cluster. That will continue until, once again, the size limit for bond sustainability is reached. The proton then stops growing and stability is maintained.
We should note that ‘stability’ at this point means ‘only just stable’. New atoms have protons that are right up to or at the point of bond unsustainability.
As the z-pinch field dissipates, or matter moves away from it, gamma rays are no longer triggered and the process of photon condensation ceases completely. In this reducing field strength environment, the background field of i-neutrinos will now be less dense and the neutrinos within the field will be less highly imprinted. The i-neutrinos populating the gaps between the positrons and electrons within each proton are therefore smaller which means the gaps will contract and the bonds will become stronger. The lower the external field becomes, the stronger the protons’ bonds will become. The consequence of this is that, here in our part of the galaxy, all our protons will be large and stable whereas in the z-pinch areas of the universe, protons will be smaller and relatively less stable.
All this is in complete accord with Halton Arp’s suggestion that the mass of atoms increases over time. This mass increase only actually happens over the limited period of time whilst field strength conditions and gamma ray flux remain sufficient to sustain photon condensation. However, this could be a period of many millions of years and, whatever the period, it explains why quasars are made up of matter that is less massive than the matter found in our solar system and that the red-shifts seen in quasars are not indicative of distance, but of age.
Proton expansion through photon condensation is also a one way process, since the opposite effect, whereby positrons and electrons within a proton would somehow become energetic enough to annihilate into a photon, can never happen. See also Ejection of Matter.
Protons in our Galaxy
Proton size limit
At the same time, incoming neutrinos (from the external field) are also entering these gaps and, through collision and interaction with the ‘gap’ neutrinos, further increases the sizes of the gaps which weakens the bonds further. The stronger the external field, the larger the incoming neutrinos and so the greater the effect.
Gap with positively and negatively charged neutrinos producing attraction
Neighbouring charge adds charged neutrinos into gap which expands aether and so reduces attraction
Positron (Showing neutrino field from one positive quanta only)
Electron (Showing neutrino field from one negative quanta only)