The Electric Force
The Aether
Neutral particles (neutrinos and photons) are tiny and move at the speed of light within the aether. When a neutron collides with a charged body it acquires a memory of that collision. This conditions the neutrino with a positive or negative charge imprint which causes the neutrino to grow in size. The neutrino does not pick up any actual net charge and so remains neutral. Neutrinos which have acquired a charge imprint are called i-neutrinos. Neutrinos with no charge imprint are called zero point neutrinos. Both types are neutral (uncharged). When two neutrinos collide they bounce elastically and equalise their charge imprints. An increased charge imprint causes the neutrino to grow in size and a decreased charge imprint will cause it to shrink. See also Structure of the Neutrino At the other end of the subatomic scale, charged particles such as positrons, electrons and protons, are huge and move relatively slowly at speeds dictated by their local environment.
A negative i-neutrino colliding with another negative i-neutrino will equalise charge imprint and then bounce, as will a positive i-neutrino colliding with another positive i-neutrino. Thus, a highly negative i-neutrino colliding with a weakly negative i-neutrino will result in both emerging with the mean charge imprint. A positive i-neutrino colliding with a negative i-neutrino will, again, equalise charge imprint and then bounce, but in this case the charge imprints will be cancelled out to zero if they were equal (producing two zero charge imprinted, or, using Fredrik Nygaard’s term for un-energised neutrinos, ‘zero point’ neutrinos) and both neutrinos will emerge from the encounter with half the net positive or net negative charge imprint if they were unequal.
The Neutrino
Because neutrinos always travel at the speed of light, they cannot speed up or slow down when given extra energy, which means that their increase in energy cannot be related to their speed. After considering possible, more problematic, contenders such as spin or vibration, Fredrik Nygaard has proposed size as the simplest and preferred candidate for this energy increase. I agree, so, going with that, we can state that, at the subatomic level, an increase in size of particles is equivalent to an increase in energy and vice-versa.
We now have that the aether is full of zero point neutrinos and photons flying about at the speed of light and that neutrinos which collide with a charged particle will take on a charge imprint and therefore grow in size. Opposite charge i-neutrinos in collision will cancel out their charge imprints and shrink - all the way back to zero point size if the opposite charge imprints were equal. The role of photons is not relevant at this stage but, as we will see later, is hugely important in understanding how protons are ‘manufactured’.
In Summary
The neutral quantum is the neutrino. It is extremely small and flies about in the aether at the speed of light. The neutrino has two unique and important *properties. The first property is that, upon collision with a charged particle, it will gain energy and acquire a ‘memory’ of that collision in the form of a charge-related ‘imprint’ of the same polarity. So, if a neutrino collides with, say, a proton, it will become positively imprinted and if the collision is with an electron, it will become negatively imprinted. Upon collision with another neutrino, it will elastically bounce and the imprints will ‘equalise’ so that each neutrino shares the net positive or negative imprint (see below).
+ + neutrino i-neutrino (with ‘imprint’)
The Second Property
Putting these properties together, we can say that when a zero-point neutrino picks up a charge imprint, as above, it grows in size and that as the resulting i-neutrino becomes more highly or less highly charge imprinted it will grow or reduce in size accordingly.
A positive or negative i-neutrino colliding with a zero point neutrino will result in both neutrinos emerging from the encounter with half the positive or negative charge imprint of the incoming charge imprinted neutrino.
This means that a ‘free’ positive or negative i-neutrino in the aether will rapidly diminish in imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with zero point neutrinos. If this were not so, the aether would rapidly fill up with charge imprinted neutrinos.
*The current theoretical Standard Model of the Atom attributes similar properties to particles, acknowledging that different types of speed-of-light neutrinos can have structure and flavour as well as the ability to interact with each other and that small amounts of energy can be exchanged in encounters between particles via bosons. The proposals here, based largely on the above two simple neutrino properties, offer an opportunity for a fresh perspective on atomic structure and behaviour - one without the limitations and unknowns currently associated with the Standard Model.
It also means that a zero point neutrino entering a field of positive or negative i-neutrinos will rapidly increase in both charge imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with the field i-neutrinos.
i-neutrinos
Neutrons which have acquired a memory of their most recent collision with a charged body as a transferrable charge-related imprint will be referred to as i-neutrinos throughout the remainder of this work. This will make things considerably less ‘wordy’ and therefore, hopefully, more readable.
The two types are positive i-neutrinos and negative i-neutrinos meaning, respectively, neutrinos which have acquired a positive charge-related imprint and neutrinos which have acquired a negative charge-related imprint.
The terms highly positive i-neutrino or highly negative i-neutrino will also be used purely as a shorthand description for neutrinos with a strong positive or negative charge-related imprint. Similarly, i-neutrinos with a weak charge-related imprint will be described as weakly positive or weakly negative i-neutrinos. The terms ‘highly positive’ or ‘highly negative’ does not mean that the neutrinos are charged, merely that that the memory imprint from a collision with a charged object is large.
i-neutrinos do not become charged or carry a charge, or at least, not in any measurable way, and so they remain neutral. However, their structures are ‘conditioned’ by the encounter such that they gain energy and retain a memory imprint of the encounter.
This means that i-neutrinos are larger than zero-point neutrinos. The larger the charge imprint, the larger they become.
When neutrinos collide, they bounce elastically.
The Electric Force
The Aether
Neutral particles (neutrinos and photons) are tiny and move at the speed of light within the aether. When a neutron collides with a charged body it acquires a memory of that collision. This conditions the neutrino with a positive or negative charge imprint which causes the neutrino to grow in size. The neutrino does not pick up any actual net charge and so remains neutral. Neutrinos which have acquired a charge imprint are called i-neutrinos. Neutrinos with no charge imprint are called zero point neutrinos. Both types are neutral (uncharged). When two neutrinos collide they bounce elastically and equalise their charge imprints. An increased charge imprint causes the neutrino to grow in size and a decreased charge imprint will cause it to shrink. See also Structure of the Neutrino At the other end of the subatomic scale, charged particles such as positrons, electrons and protons, are huge and move relatively slowly at speeds dictated by their local environment.
A negative i-neutrino colliding with another negative i-neutrino will equalise charge imprint and then bounce, as will a positive i-neutrino colliding with another positive i-neutrino. Thus, a highly negative i-neutrino colliding with a weakly negative i-neutrino will result in both emerging with the mean charge imprint. A positive i-neutrino colliding with a negative i-neutrino will, again, equalise charge imprint and then bounce, but in this case the charge imprints will be cancelled out to zero if they were equal (producing two zero charge imprinted, or, using Fredrik Nygaard’s term for un-energised neutrinos, ‘zero point’ neutrinos) and both neutrinos will emerge from the encounter with half the net positive or net negative charge imprint if they were unequal.
The Neutrino
Because neutrinos always travel at the speed of light, they cannot speed up or slow down when given extra energy, which means that their increase in energy cannot be related to their speed. After considering possible, more problematic, contenders such as spin or vibration, Fredrik Nygaard has proposed size as the simplest and preferred candidate for this energy increase. I agree, so, going with that, we can state that, at the subatomic level, an increase in size of particles is equivalent to an increase in energy and vice-versa.
We now have that the aether is full of zero point neutrinos and photons flying about at the speed of light and that neutrinos which collide with a charged particle will take on a charge imprint and therefore grow in size. Opposite charge i- neutrinos in collision will cancel out their charge imprints and shrink - all the way back to zero point size if the opposite charge imprints were equal. The role of photons is not relevant at this stage but, as we will see later, is hugely important in understanding how protons are ‘manufactured’.
In Summary
The neutral quantum is the neutrino. It is extremely small and flies about in the aether at the speed of light. The neutrino has two unique and important *properties. The first property is that, upon collision with a charged particle, it will gain energy and acquire a ‘memory’ of that collision in the form of a charge-related ‘imprint’ of the same polarity. So, if a neutrino collides with, say, a proton, it will become positively imprinted and if the collision is with an electron, it will become negatively imprinted. Upon collision with another neutrino, it will elastically bounce and the imprints will ‘equalise’ so that each neutrino shares the net positive or negative imprint (see below).
+ neutrino + i-neutrino with ‘footprint’
The Second Property
Putting these properties together, we can say that when a zero-point neutrino picks up a charge imprint, as above, it grows in size and that as the resulting i-neutrino becomes more highly or less highly charge imprinted it will grow or reduce in size accordingly.
A positive or negative i-neutrino colliding with a zero point neutrino will result in both neutrinos emerging from the encounter with half the positive or negative charge imprint of the incoming charge imprinted neutrino.
This means that a ‘free’ positive or negative i- neutrino in the aether will rapidly diminish in imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with zero point neutrinos. If this were not so, the aether would rapidly fill up with charge imprinted neutrinos.
*The current theoretical Standard Model of the Atom attributes similar properties to particles, acknowledging that different types of speed-of-light neutrinos can have structure and flavour as well as the ability to interact with each other and that small amounts of energy can be exchanged in encounters between particles via bosons. The proposals here, based largely on the above two simple neutrino properties, offer an opportunity for a fresh perspective on atomic structure and behaviour - one without the limitations and unknowns currently associated with the Standard Model.
It also means that a zero point neutrino entering a field of positive or negative i-neutrinos will rapidly increase in both charge imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with the field i- neutrinos.
This means that i-neutrinos are larger than zero- point neutrinos. The larger the charge imprint, the larger they become.
When neutrinos collide, they bounce elastically.
i-neutrinos
Neutrons which have acquired a memory of their most recent collision with a charged body as a transferrable charge-related imprint will be referred to as i-neutrinos throughout the remainder of this work. This will make things considerably less ‘wordy’ and therefore, hopefully, more readable.
The two types are positive i-neutrinos and negative i-neutrinos meaning, respectively, neutrinos which have acquired a positive charge-related imprint and neutrinos which have acquired a negative charge-related imprint.
The terms highly positive i-neutrino or highly negative i-neutrino will also be used purely as a shorthand description for neutrinos with a strong positive or negative charge-related imprint. Similarly, i-neutrinos with a weak charge-related imprint will be described as weakly positive or weakly negative i-neutrinos. The terms ‘highly positive’ or ‘highly negative’ does not mean that the neutrinos are charged, merely that that the memory imprint from a collision with a charged object is large.
i-neutrinos do not become charged or carry a charge, or at least, not in any measurable way, and so they remain neutral. However, their structures are ‘conditioned’ by the encounter such that they gain energy and retain a memory imprint of the encounter.
The Electric Force
The Aether
Neutral particles (neutrinos and photons) are tiny and move at the speed of light within the aether. When a neutron collides with a charged body it acquires a memory of that collision. This conditions the neutrino with a positive or negative charge imprint which causes the neutrino to grow in size. The neutrino does not pick up any actual net charge and so remains neutral. Neutrinos which have acquired a charge imprint are called i-neutrinos. Neutrinos with no charge imprint are called zero point neutrinos. Both types are neutral (uncharged). When two neutrinos collide they bounce elastically and equalise their charge imprints. An increased charge imprint causes the neutrino to grow in size and a decreased charge imprint will cause it to shrink. See also Structure of the Neutrino At the other end of the subatomic scale, charged particles such as positrons, electrons and protons, are huge and move relatively slowly at speeds dictated by their local environment.
A negative i-neutrino colliding with another negative i-neutrino will equalise charge imprint and then bounce, as will a positive i-neutrino colliding with another positive i-neutrino. Thus, a highly negative i-neutrino colliding with a weakly negative i-neutrino will result in both emerging with the mean charge imprint. A positive i-neutrino colliding with a negative i-neutrino will, again, equalise charge imprint and then bounce, but in this case the charge imprints will be cancelled out to zero if they were equal (producing two zero charge imprinted, or, using Fredrik Nygaard’s term for un-energised neutrinos, ‘zero point’ neutrinos) and both neutrinos will emerge from the encounter with half the net positive or net negative charge imprint if they were unequal.
The Neutrino
Because neutrinos always travel at the speed of light, they cannot speed up or slow down when given extra energy, which means that their increase in energy cannot be related to their speed. After considering possible, more problematic, contenders such as spin or vibration, Fredrik Nygaard has proposed size as the simplest and preferred candidate for this energy increase. I agree, so, going with that, we can state that, at the subatomic level, an increase in size of particles is equivalent to an increase in energy and vice-versa.
We now have that the aether is full of zero point neutrinos and photons flying about at the speed of light and that neutrinos which collide with a charged particle will take on a charge imprint and therefore grow in size. Opposite charge i-neutrinos in collision will cancel out their charge imprints and shrink - all the way back to zero point size if the opposite charge imprints were equal. The role of photons is not relevant at this stage but, as we will see later, is hugely important in understanding how protons are ‘manufactured’.
In Summary
The neutral quantum is the neutrino. It is extremely small and flies about in the aether at the speed of light. The neutrino has two unique and important *properties. The first property is that, upon collision with a charged particle, it will gain energy and acquire a ‘memory’ of that collision in the form of a charge-related ‘imprint’ of the same polarity. So, if a neutrino collides with, say, a proton, it will become positively imprinted and if the collision is with an electron, it will become negatively imprinted. Upon collision with another neutrino, it will elastically bounce and the imprints will ‘equalise’ so that each neutrino shares the net positive or negative imprint (see below).
+ + neutrino i-neutrino with ‘footprint’
The Second Property
Putting these properties together, we can say that when a zero-point neutrino picks up a charge imprint, as above, it grows in size and that as the resulting i-neutrino becomes more highly or less highly charge imprinted it will grow or reduce in size accordingly.
A positive or negative i-neutrino colliding with a zero point neutrino will result in both neutrinos emerging from the encounter with half the positive or negative charge imprint of the incoming charge imprinted neutrino.
This means that a ‘free’ positive or negative i-neutrino in the aether will rapidly diminish in imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with zero point neutrinos. If this were not so, the aether would rapidly fill up with charge imprinted neutrinos.
*The current theoretical Standard Model of the Atom attributes similar properties to particles, acknowledging that different types of speed-of-light neutrinos can have structure and flavour as well as the ability to interact with each other and that small amounts of energy can be exchanged in encounters between particles via bosons. The proposals here, based largely on the above two simple neutrino properties, offer an opportunity for a fresh perspective on atomic structure and behaviour - one without the limitations and unknowns currently associated with the Standard Model.
It also means that a zero point neutrino entering a field of positive or negative i-neutrinos will rapidly increase in both charge imprint and size as a result of multiple collisions with the field i-neutrinos.
This means that i-neutrinos are larger than zero-point neutrinos. The larger the charge imprint, the larger they become.
When neutrinos collide, they bounce elastically.
i-neutrinos
Neutrons which have acquired a memory of their most recent collision with a charged body as a transferrable charge-related imprint will be referred to as i-neutrinos throughout the remainder of this work. This will make things considerably less ‘wordy’ and therefore, hopefully, more readable.
The two types are positive i-neutrinos and negative i- neutrinos meaning, respectively, neutrinos which have acquired a positive charge-related imprint and neutrinos which have acquired a negative charge-related imprint.
The terms highly positive i-neutrino or highly negative i- neutrino will also be used purely as a shorthand description for neutrinos with a strong positive or negative charge- related imprint. Similarly, i-neutrinos with a weak charge- related imprint will be described as weakly positive or weakly negative i-neutrinos. The terms ‘highly positive’ or ‘highly negative’ does not mean that the neutrinos are charged, merely that that the memory imprint from a collision with a charged object is large.
i-neutrinos do not become charged or carry a charge, or at least, not in any measurable way, and so they remain neutral. However, their structures are ‘conditioned’ by the encounter such that they gain energy and retain a memory imprint of the encounter.